Κουρδικό Ζήτημα κ Κεμαλισμός:Εκφάνσεις Ασυμβατότητας,Οντολογία κ η Εικοσαετής Σύγκρουση 1980-2000,Civitas Gentium

The Kurdish Issue & Kemalism:aspects of incompatibility, ontology & the twenty year conflict 1980-2000 Civitas Gentium,V.8,N.1(2020)

https://www.academia.edu/44693355/%CE%9A%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%81%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%BA%CF%8C_%CE%96%CE%AE%CF%84%CE%B7%CE%BC%CE%B1_%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%B9_%CE%9A%CE%B5%CE%BC%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%BC%CF%8C%CF%82_%CE%95%CE%BA%CF%86%CE%AC%CE%BD%CF%83%CE%B5%CE%B9%CF%82_%CE%91%CF%83%CF%85%CE%BC%CE%B2%CE%B1%CF%84%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%84%CE%B1%CF%82_%CE%9F%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%B3%CE%AF%CE%B1_%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%B9_%CE%B7_%CE%95%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%BF%CF%83%CE%B1%CE%B5%CF%84%CE%AE%CF%82_%CE%A3%CF%8D%CE%B3%CE%BA%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%83%CE%B7_1980_2000_Civitas_Gentium

Turkish Hyper-Activity Reverberates Throughout the Middle East

Institute for Contemporary Affairs

Founded jointly with the Wechsler Family Foundation

Vol. 20, No. 20

Turkish Hyper-Activity Reverberates Throughout the Middle East
  • In recent months, Turkey has increased its efforts to enhance its position as a regional power following in the path of the Ottoman Empire, adopting daring measures that border on megalomania at home, in the region, and internationally.
  • A video with distinct nationalistic themes was recently broadcast by the Turkish Ministry of Information. The film is entitled, “The Red Apple [kizil elma],” which is a Turkish cultural concept describing Turkey’s ambition to achieve superpower status. Beyond the context of Turkey’s religious battles in Istanbul, the Turkish video also displays a troubling appetite for Jerusalem and Saudi Arabia’s holy sites in Mecca and Medina.
  • In the Persian Gulf, where Qatar is at odds with the Emirates and other members of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Turkey has allied itself with Qatar. Some 5,000 Turkish soldiers are stationed in Qatar to help Doha protect itself and deter enemies.
  • Turkey also displays considerable hyper-activity in Palestinian and Israeli issues. Turkey stands in solidarity with Hamas, Turkey’s partner and protégé in the Muslim Brotherhood camp. Turkish citizenship and passports were granted to a “dozen” Hamas activists, including convicted terrorists.1
  • For the United States, Turkey’s military acquisitions present a problem. Erdoğan’s determination to acquire Russia’s advanced S-400 anti-aircraft missile system forced the United States to cancel a deal to supply F-35 Joint Strike Fighter aircraft to Turkey.
  • Do not underestimate President Erdoğan’s ability to utilize Turkey’s strategic assets to advance his bold strategies. To prevent Erdoğan from provocations against Israel, it must be made clear to him the limits to the actions that Israel is willing to tolerate.

Cold War Containment and the Middle East

Reuters

‘Green’s version of containment is heavy on confrontation, military buildups, and the imposition of maximum costs on the adversary. “Interestingly enough,” Green says in applying this idea to the Middle East, “it would appear to be the current Trump Doctrine” of maximum pressure against Iran. Green disregards how that doctrine has been a failure on every count by making the Iran problem worse than before in terms of Iran’s nuclear activity, destructive actions within the region, and the dominance of hardliners in Tehran’

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/paul-pillar/cold-war-containment-and-middle-east-125116

The End of History and the Last Map – FOREIGN POLICY

Cartography and conflict in the post-Cold War world.

‘The challenges of mapping global peace and prosperity were already evident 75 years ago, when Americans began to articulate a new liberal internationalist vision for the future. The end of World War II, like the end of the Cold War, led some to imagine that the world was entering an unprecedented era of international peace. Earnest optimism about this postwar world took particularly fanciful form in two striking—yet strikingly unrealistic—maps. The first is the cartographer Leslie Macdonald Gill’s 1942 map of the Atlantic Charter, which visualized U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s promise for the peace that would follow an Allied victory. Rays of sun shine down on a world engaged in commerce and industry while a man in the corner hammers artillery into ploughshares. Borders between countries are still demarcated but only barely, with dotted lines that disappear under all the bustle’

The End of History and the Last Map

The U.S. Peace Plan: A Return to the Rabin Doctrine of Defensible Borders

Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

The U.S. Peace Plan: A Return to the Rabin Doctrine of Defensible Borders

  • The U.S. peace plan offers a return to the security-first approach of former Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and, specifically, the concept of defensible borders.
  • On Jan. 29, 2020, Shimon Sheves, former Director-General of Prime Minister Rabin’s office, told Israel Army Radio, “The Trump plan is essentially the Rabin plan” and a “continuation of Rabin’s legacy.” Journalist Ben Caspit, writing in Maariv, called it “a modern incarnation of Rabin’s plan from 25 years ago.”
  • During the ratification of the Oslo Interim Accords at the Knesset on Oct. 5, 1995, Rabin declared: “The borders of the State of Israel during the permanent solution will be beyond the lines that existed before the Six Day War. We will not return to the June 4, 1967 lines.”
  • Rabin continued: “The security border of the State of Israel will be located in the Jordan Valley in the broadest sense of that term.” He emphasized that Jerusalem would remain Israel’s united capital. Regarding the Palestinian entity, Rabin told the Knesset, “We would like this to be an entity that is less than a state, and which will independently run the lives of the Palestinians under its authority.”
  • The defensible borders concept was first formally outlined following the 1967 war by Gen. Yigal Allon, who presented it to Western audiences in Foreign Affairs in 1976. He posited that Israel needed to retain a topographical barrier to defend itself from attacks from the east. Allon insisted on Israel annexing the entire Jordan Rift Valley, including the hilly terrain facing eastwards toward Jordan, as well as the Jordan Valley below.
  • The U.S. peace plan means Israel is being asked to take unprecedented risks by living next to a sovereign Palestinian state in a Middle East plagued by radical regimes and failed states. That is why defensible borders are critical to guarantee Israel’s security.’

The U.S. Peace Plan: A Return to the Rabin Doctrine of Defensible Borders

Containment is the Correct Strategy for the Bipolar Middle East

Reuters

‘Following most great conflicts, exhaustion of nations led to peace, and peace treaties, attempts at what Secretary of State Henry Kissinger labeled “legitimacy.” This often created a multipolar region or world.’

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/middle-east-watch/containment-correct-strategy-bipolar-middle-east-121201

Examining Iran’s Role in the New Middle East

Reuters

“Sub-state actors that operate violently across borders, an information and communications technology revolution, and an increasingly fragmented ideological landscape make up the new Middle East”

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/middle-east-watch/examining-irans-role-new-middle-east-120541