Coronavirus : quels scénarios pour la sortie de crise économique ?

‘Si l’entrée en vigueur des mesures de confinement, le 17 mars à midi, a donné un coup d’arrêt brutal à l’économie française, dont l’activité a chuté d’un bon tiers en l’espace de quatre semaines, la sortie de crise aura une physionomie toute différente. « Le redressement économique sera long, difficile et coûteux », a insisté le ministre de l’économie et des finances, Bruno Le Maire, jeudi 9 avril, en annonçant un doublement du budget du plan d’urgence, alors que le produit intérieur brut (PIB) de la France devrait plonger de 6 % en 2020.

Pandemics: How Well-Prepared Is the EU?

by Daniela Braun

July 2019

International Reports

Of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung

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‘Epidemics and pandemics pose a real danger in the highly connected 21st century. Densely populated areas like the EU, with lively exchange of goods and services, are especially susceptible to the rapid spread of infectious diseases. The good news is: we can prepare ourselves – but it won’t be easy’

‘Unfortunately, according to researchers and based on recent events, the danger of a pandemic in the hyper-connected 21st century is higher than most other times in human history. The acceleration of underlying trends such as urbanisation and environmental degradation will serve to further increase pandemics and epidemics.’

Multilevel Governance and Complex Threats: The Case of Pandemic Preparedness in the European Union and the United States

Erik Brattberg and Mark Rhinard

‘The scale of dangers posed by influenza pandemics, combined with a series of actual outbreaks, has led policymakers in both the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) to frame the issue as a security threat and to call for extraordinary action. In the US, the 2006 and 2010 National Security Strategies identified pandemics as a “catastrophic challenge” while the 2006 US Pandemic Plan argued that “pandemics should be viewed as a national security issue.” The EU’s 2008 review of its own European Security Strategy broadened the scope of threats facing the continent to include pandemic influenza. Identifying an influenza pandemic as a security threat, however, is relatively easily done. More challenging is to act upon that designation, through implementing security strategies in practice and managing governance processes in multi-level governance systems. Drawing upon securitization theory and traditional implementation theory, this article compares the extent to which the EU and the US have turned words into action on pandemic preparation. The findings show that increasingly securitized rhetoric following the H5N1 and H1N1 outbreaks has indeed been followed by new policies, structures, and operational capacities. As such, the article provides preliminary evidence that securitizing a public policy problem can increase political leverage over administrative processes of implementation’


Getting the EU ready for the next pandemic

Research Project 2015-2017 PANDEM



‘For 18 months, the PANDEM project has been preparing recommendations to help the EU face a potential pandemic. Armed with its planning tool and other project outcomes, the team has identified research priorities and innovations needed to strengthen preparedness for pandemics’

‘The EU acknowledges that there is a growing health security threat posed by pandemics,’ says Prof. Máire Connolly, coordinator of PANDEM. ‘In Europe, the increasing numbers of airline passengers with larger travel hubs means that an emerging disease can arrive within hours in a European city. We also have a large population of over 750 million people, and densely populated cities.’

She continues: ‘Add to this: the continuing circulation of influenza viruses among birds, pigs and humans; the threat of bioterrorism; and the potential for an accidental release of dangerous pathogens if biosafety measures are not strictly implemented. Then put this in the context of antimicrobial resistance and we have a major threat to human health which could bring the management of infectious diseases back to the pre-antimicrobial era.’

Geopolitics of pandemics: Diagnosing threats to organizational resilience

‘Given the interconnectedness of risks today, a national or local crisis can have global implications. Expanding beyond China and into the global system, coronavirus is no exception.’


09/2018 The Next Pandemic Will Be Arriving Shortly – FOREIGN POLICY

“In January 2017,while one of us was serving as a homeland security advisor to Pr. B. Obama, a deadly pandemic was among the scenarios that the outgoing+incoming U.S. Cabinet officials discussed in a daylong exercise that focused on honing interagency coordination and rapid federal response to potential crises”

Medical staff check each other's protective suits before entering the isolation unit at a hospital in Bundibugyo, western Uganda, during a suspected case of Ebola. Aug. 17. (Sumy Sadurni /AFP/Getty Images)

The Next Pandemic Will Be Arriving Shortly